When reading some articles, books and posts about the Soviet Army these are usually packed with acronyms which are not that easy to understand. And there is nothing to be ashamed about - these are acronyms from a different language and they are quite counterintuitive from time to time.
To simplify this list it will be split in four parts - military units, vehicles, weapons and equipment. If you feel that something is missing from the list, do not hesitate to leave a comment and we will add it.
Military units acronyms
These come in all shapes and colors and unlike vehicles and weapons, which can be easily googled, these are a bit more tricky. Let's start with the most common type of units in the Soviet Army - infantry.
Motorized Rifle Division
Motorized Rifle Regiment
Motorized Rifle Battalion
Motorised Rifle Brigade
Usually, when you see brigade mentioned, it is stated as oMSBr (оМСБр). Letter "o" in this case stands for "otdelniy" - "separate", meaning that the brigade is not part of any division and is under the direct command of the Army. Similar logic goes for other types of units, but when we are talking about smaller units, like separate company or a battalion, they would usually be under the direct command of the Division, meaning that they are not a part of any regiment.
Same logic goes for the majority of the other branches of service.
Desantno Shturmovaya Brigada
Air Assault Brigade
Inzhenerno Saperniy Polk
Sapper Engineer Regiment
However, there are quite a few exceptions. I do not want to go too deep into some micro sub units, like Separate Anti-Plague Unit or Bread Baking Factory (yes, that was a military unit as well). Let's go over some more common ones:
Otdelniy Otryad SpetsNaznacheniya
Separate Unit of Special Forces
Regimental Medical Point
If there are some other unit acronyms which you believe should be added here - do not hesitate to comment.
Soviet Military Vehicles acronyms
Luckily, there are not that many common vehicles. Again, we are not going to list some very specific recon/radio/engineer machines here. Or we will, if there will be a request.
Now, you can probably guess that letter T in any of the tank's designation (T-55/T-72 etc) stands for Tank. But other vehicles are not all that simple. The general rule of thumb - armored vehicles acronyms are descriptive, while trucks represent the name of the factory where they were produced.
Armored Personnel Carrier
Boevaya Mashina Pehoty
Infantry Fighting Vehicle
Boevaya Mashina Desanta
Airborne Fighting Vehicle
Airborne Armored Personnel Carrier
Bronirovanaya Rozvedivatelno Dozornaya Mashina
Armored Recon-Patrol Vehicle
Mnogocelevoy Tyagach Legkiy Bronirovaniy
Multipurpose Light Armored Towing vehicle
Ulyanovsky Avtomobilny Zavod
Ulyanovsk Automobile Factory
Gorkovskiy Avtomobilny Zavod
Gorky Automobile Plant
Kamskiy Avtomobilnyy Zavod
Kama Automobile Plant
Zavod Imeni Likhachyova
Likhachev Automobile Plant
Some Soviet Weapons acronyms
The acronyms for small arms and other infantry weapons broadly fall into two categories. They are either descriptive or named after their inventors. Or both.
Kalashnikov's assault rifle
Avtomat Kalashnikova Modernezirovaniy Skladnoy
Kalashnikov's assault rifle, modernized, with folding stock
Avtomat Kalashnikova Skladnoy Ukorocheniy
Kalashnikov's assault rifle, shortened, with folding stock
Ruchnoy Pulemet Kalashnikova
Kalashnikov's handheld machine gun
Ruchnoy Protivotankoviy Granatomet
Handheld anti-tank grenade (launcher)
Pulemet Kalashnikova Modernizirovaniy
Kalashnikov's machine gun, modernized
Dyagterev, Shpagin, Krupnokaliberniy
Dyagterev-Shpagin, high caliber
Nikitin, Sokolov, Volkov
Avtomaticheskiy Granatomet Stankoviy
Grenade machine gun, on a tripod
ProtivoTankoviy Raketniy Kompleks
Anti-tank rocket launcher